CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1

Scientific Understanding of Behavior

Uses of Research Methods
The Scientific Approach
Goals of Science
Basic and Applied Research
Study Terms
Review Questions
Activity Questions

CHAPTER 2

Where to Start

Hypotheses and Predictions
Sources of Ideas
Library Research
Anatomy of a Research Article
Study Terms
Review Questions
Activity Questions

CHAPTER 3

Ethical Research

Milgram's Obedience Experiment
The Belmont Report
Assessment of Risks and Benefits
Informed Consent
The Importance of Debriefing
Alternatives to Deception
Justice and the Selection of Participants
Researcher Commitments
Federal Regulations and the Institutional Review Board
APA Ethics Code
Research with Human Participants
Ethics and Animal Research
Risks and Benefits Revisited
Misrepresentation
Study Terms
Review Questions
Activity Questions

CHAPTER 4

Studying Behavior

Variables
Operational Definitions of Variables
Relationships Between Variables
Nonexperimental Versus Experimental Methods
Independent and Dependent Variables
Causality
Choosing a Method: Advantages of Multiple Methods
Evaluating Research: Three Validities
Study Terms
Review Questions
Activity Questions

CHAPTER 5

Measurement Concepts

Reliability of Measures
Construct Validity of Measures
Reactivity of Measures
Variables and Measurement Scales
Study Terms
Review Questions
Activity Questions

CHAPTER 6

Observing Behavior

Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches
Naturalistic Observation
Systematic Observation
Case Studies
Archival Research
Describing Personality and Individual Differences
Study Terms
Review Questions
Activity Questions

CHAPTER 7

Asking People about Themselves: Survey Research

Why Conduct Surveys?
Constructing Questions to Ask
Responses to Questions
Finalizing the Questionnaire
Administering Surveys
Survey Designs To Study Changes Over Time
Sampling From A Population
Sampling Techniques
Evaluating Samples
Study Terms
Review Questions
Activity Questions

CHAPTER 8

Experimental Design: Purposes and Pitfalls

Confounding and Internal Validity
Basic Experiments
Assigning Subjects to Experimental Conditions
Independent Groups Designs
Repeated Measures Designs
Matched Pairs Design
Developmental Research Designs
Study Terms
Review Questions
Activity Questions

CHAPTER 9

Conducting Experiments

Selecting Research Participants
Manipulating the Independent Variable
Measuring the Dependent Variable
Additional Controls
Additional Considerations
Analyzing and Interpreting Results
Communicating Research to Others
Study Terms
Review Questions
Activity Questions

CHAPTER 10

Complex Experimental Designs

Increasing the Number of Levels of an Independent Variable
Increasing the Number of Independent Variables: Factorial Designs
Study Terms
Review Questions
Activity Questions

CHAPTER 11

Quasi-Experimental and Single Case Experimental Designs

Program Evaluation
Quasi-Experimental Designs
Single Case Experimental Designs
Study Terms
Review Questions
Activity Questions

CHAPTER 12

Understanding Research Results: Description and Correlation

Scales of Measurement: A Review
Analyzing the Results of Research Investigations
Frequency Distributions
Descriptive Statistics
Graphing Relationships
Correlation Coefficients: Describing the Strength of Relationships
Effect Size
Statistical Significance
Regression Equations
Multiple Correlation
Partial Correlation and the Third-Variable Problem
Structural Models
Study Terms
Review Questions
Activity Questions

CHAPTER 13

Understanding Research Results: Inferential Statistics

Samples and Populations
Inferential Statistics
Null and Research Hypotheses
Probability and Sampling Distributions
Example: The t and F Tests
Type I and Type II Errors
Interpreting Nonsignificant Results
Choosing a Sample Size: Power Analysis
The Importance of Replications
Significance of a Pearson r Correlation Coefficient
Computer Analysis of Data
Selecting the Appropriate Test
Study Terms
Review Questions
Activity Questions

CHAPTER 14

Generalizing Results

Generalizing to Other Populations of Research Participants
Cultural Considerations
Generalizing to Other Experimenters
Pretests and Generalization
Generalizing from Laboratory Settings
The Importance of Replications
Evaluating Generalizations via Literature Reviews and Meta-Analysis
Using Research to Improve Lives
Study Terms
Review Questions
Activity Questions

APPENDIX A

Writing Research Reports

Introduction
Writing Style
Organization of the Report
The Use of Headings
Citing and Referencing Sources
Abbreviations
Some Grammatical Considerations
Reporting Numbers and Statistics
Conclusion
Sample Paper

APPENDIX B

Statistical Tests

Descriptive Statistics
Statistical Significance Tests
Measures of Strength of Association

APPENDIX C

Statistical Tables

Random Number Table
Critical Values of Chi-Square
Critical Values of t
Critical Values of F
Critical Values of r

APPENDIX D

Constructing a Latin Square

Glossary

References

Index


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Methods in Behavioral Research, 8th edition.
Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill Publishing Company
ISBN:
0-07-294275-4
Cover illustration by Paul Schulenburg


This page was revised on July 15, 2003